Non-Avian Native Wildlife photo

Non-Avian Native Wildlife Species Identified as Present
(Active List: species added as identified)

We are trying to create a list of the different groups of animals that live on the place; where possible, this is supported by photographic record, which aids in identification. Eventually, we hope to have a set of checklists and a guidebook to this property, so that someone who wants to see a Dythemis velox, for instance, will know the best place to look for one. When combined with the plant list and the bird list, this list should give some idea of the value of this property to wildlife. As of May 2006, the total known species of plants and animals had topped 600; as of November 2007, 750 and by December 2008, had topped 800. Dates of sightings and photos are given in US format (month/year, or month/day/year.)


Kutac and Caran (ref) list 82 species of native mammals which have, or formerly had, reproducing populations in this area. Those seen clearly, or identified without a doubt by tracks or other sign, are listed below; those known to have formerly inhabited this land, but not seen for several years, are listed with an * following the entry. Some of these animals, though regularly visiting the property, have a much larger range of which this property is only a part (deer, coyote, bobcat, fox). Nonetheless, it forms an important resource for them. Bats have been observed on summer evenings, but not identified. The biggest tree on the place, a mostly-hollow old cottonwood, probably harbors some bats. Unidentified small rodents (plump brown sausages with short tails and skinny bicolored ones with long tails) are seen leaping away from the mower. Some of these animals (small rodents in particular) are important food for predators (hawks, owls, fox, etc.)

  1. Virginia Opossum Didelphis virginiana (tracks and sightings)
  2. Least Shrew Cryptotis parva* (one specimen found dead)
  3. Nine-banded Armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus (tracks and sightings, photo 5/2005)
  4. Eastern Cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus (tracks and sightings, photo)
  5. Black-tailed Jackrabbit Lepus californicus* (formerly seen)
  6. Eastern Fox Squirrel Sciurus niger (sightings, photo)
  7. American Beaver Castor canadensis (sightings, tracks, cut saplings)
  8. Fulvous Harvest Mouse Reithrodontomys fulvescens (sighting, nest)
  9. White-footed Mouse Peromyscus leucopus (sightings)
  10. White-ankled Mouse Peromyscus pectoralis (2/2005 sightings, "Fort Cedar")
  11. Hispid Cotton Rat Sigmodon hispidus (sightings, grass runways)
  12. Coyote Canis latrans (one sighting, tracks, scat)
  13. Gray Fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus (has raised young here, sightings, scat, photographed)
  14. Ringtail Bassariscus astutus (seen once, poor light, 2001; seen 3/12/05, afternoon, photographed in tree in SW dry woods.)
  15. Common Raccoon Procyon lotor (multiple sightings, tracks)
  16. Long-tailed Weasel Mustela frenata (tracks, heard scream)
  17. Striped Skunk Mephitis mephitis (sightings)
  18. Feral Cat Felis catus (sightings, tracks, non-native) (game-cam photo 2008)
  19. Bobcat Lynx rufux (by tracks only: 2003, 2004, 2005, possible cry 3/10/05)
  20. White-tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus (sightings, tracks, photographed)

(20 mammals as of 3/2005, 6 photographed)


All species positively identified are listed; quite a few sightings did not lead to positive identification. It is likely that other species are here and have not yet been noticed (copperheads and coral snakes could be expected in the wooded areas, for instance.) Only one cottonmouth has been seen (and photographed)--after a winter flood; these snakes would not stay when the creek is dry. Western diamondbacks, on the other hand, are plentiful. Their presence, like that of the gray fox and various raptors, indicates an adequate supply of small grassland mammals. Most lizard sightings have been in one of three locations (east end near highway, rocky area of knoll, gravelly bank of upper creek) and many have fled too fast for identification. There are undoubtedly more kinds of lizards than we've found.

Management for reptiles is limited to maintaining the appropriate habitat type. For turtles and aquatic snakes, as with other aquatic wildlife, this is a sporadic habitat since the creek is normally dry for some months of the year. Until we can create a permanent impoundment large enough, turtles will always be transient here. Nonetheless, we found one nest with turtle eggs (had been dug up by a predator, presumably a coyote or raccoon.)


  1. Common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina serpentina (seen briefly for a few days by RSM in main creek in 2004.)
  2. Texas Slider (Texas Cooter), Chrysemys concinna texana (photograph 4/30/06, 10/07)
  3. Red-eared Pond Slider, Chrysemys scripta elegans (photograph 11/05, 3/12/07 in water)
  4. Yellow Mud Turtle Kinosternon flavescens

(4 species, 2 photographed)


  1. Texas glossy snake Arizona elegans arenicola
  2. Kingsnake Lampropeltis getulis
  3. Eastern yellowbelly racer Coluber constrictor flavicentris (photographed 2006)
  4. Prairie Ringneck Snake Diadophus punctatus arnyi (photo 2/13/2008)
  5. Great Plains Rat Snake Elaphe guttata emoryi
  6. Texas Rat Snake Elaphe obsoleta lindheimerii (photographed 5/13/06)
  7. Western coachwhip Masticophis flagellum testaceus (photographed 2005)
  8. Blotched water snake Nerodia erythrogaster transversa (photographed 2002)
  9. Diamondback water snake Nerodia rhombifer
  10. Rough green snake Opheodrys aestivus (photographed 3/24/2007)
  11. Red-lined ribbon snake Thamnophis proximus rubrilineatus (photographed 2005)
  12. Texas garter snake Thamnopsis sirtalis annectens
  13. Earth snake Virginia striatula
  14. Eastern hognose snake Heterodon platyrhinos (photographed 8/7/2006)
  15. Texas Patchnose Snake Salvadora grahamiae lineata (photographed 9/2006)
  16. Western Diamondback Rattlesnake Crotalus atrox (photo of killed snake, 2002)
  17. Texas Brown Snake Storeria dekayi (photo 9/4/07)

(17 species, 11 photographed)


  1. Green Anole Anolis carolinensis (photographed 2005)
  2. Texas Horned Lizard Phrynosoma cornutum* (not seen since 2002)
  3. Texas spiny lizard Sceloporus olivaceous (photographed 2005)
  4. Prairie racerunner Cnemidophorus sexlineatus viridis (photo 6/4/06)
  5. Great Plains Skink Eumeces obsoletus (2005, immature dark individual, April?)
  6. Ground (Brown-backed) Skink, Scincella lateralis (2005, May, photo 9/14/2007)
  7. Texas Spotted Whiptail Cnemidophorus gularis (photographed May 2006)

(7 species, 6 photographed)
(28 Reptilia)


The intermittent nature of our water sources means that fish occur here only part of the time. No fish have been observed in the secondary drainage at all; fish occur in the main creek at times, and in early 2005, after a year of high water, a few (unidentified, very small) fish were seen in both Westbrook and the south extension of the west gully system. These were slender minnows approx. 1 - 1.5 inches long, and nearly transparent. In the main creek, only two species have been identified until August 2007, and only one was observed spawning (Central stoneroller), but very small minnows of obviously different species have been observed and not identified, especially in the north end, and in the sucking-mudhole pool, as well as some unidentified larger fishes (up to 4-6 inches in length) in main creek. In August 2007, unusually clear water conditions allowed photography (and ID by TPWD icthyologist) of Longear Sunfish guarding nest and Largemouth Bass.

  1. Central Stoneroller Campostoma anomalum
  2. Black Bullhead Ictalurus melas
  3. ? Blacktail or Weed Shiner (has black spot at rear.)
  4. ?Plains Killifish Fundulus zebrinus (fairly certain ID)
  5. Longear Sunfish Lepomis megalotis (clear photos 8/07; ID confirmed)
  6. Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides (clear photos 8/07; ID confirmed)

(6 fish, 2 clear photographs, blurry of others)


Amphibians are widely recognized as being under environmental stress due to habitat loss. They require water--either plentiful water, or at least wet soil. On this property all the watercourses are sporadic, but all have provided some habitat for frogs and toads. The seep areas should also provide habitat for the native salamanders listed in Kutac and Caran, but we have not yet found any. Nor have we identified all the frog and toad species sometimes observed in and near the creek. However, we are maintaining the seeps and introducing more native vegetation so that any remaining populations can survive (and others might migrate in.) At least two species of frogs and one of toads breed in the artificial stream, which is designed and planted to provide suitable breeding habitat for them.

  1. Plains Leopard Frog Rana blairi (photograhed 2005; breeding in pond)
  2. Rio Grande Leopard Frog Rana berlandieri (photo 2005, 2006, breeding)
  3. Bullfrog Rana catesbeiana (photo 2007)
  4. Blanchard's Cricket Frog Acris crepitans blanchardi 2001,2002, 2004, 2005. Definite ID 2005. Need to review ID to be sure we have both the Northern & Blanchard's.
  5. Northern Cricket Frog Acris crepitans 2007 (photo 3/27/07, ID by Dr. Pierce)
  6. Gulf Coast Toad Bufo valliceps 2001, 2002 to present (photo tadpoles & immature)
  7. Frog/toad seen May 2005 near Fox Pavilion, not yet identified, most likely a Great Plains Narrow-Mouthed Frog or a Bronze Frog

(7 (6?) amphibians, 5 photo) (59 total vertebrates (at least) 29 photographed 3/27/07)


Crayfish are an important index species for water quality as well as a food source for other wildlife including wading birds and raccoons. They are not the only important invertebrate, but they are one of the more conspicuous and easy to identify. The presence of crayfish, and their relative abundance, makes it possible to track the effect of management practices. For instance, shortly after building the first check dam to retain some water in the system of prairie sloughs, crayfish moved into that first pool. As we built other check dams, and finally the #3 gabion, it was easy to see that the crayfish population had risen (number of holes, number of "towers" in the grass). The presence of small, very translucent crayfish in spring, as well as larger, more heavily pigmented crayfish seen from time to time, indicates an active breeding population. Crayfish can survive in sporadic water, unlike fish. Moreover, the presence of crayfish in pools and streams draws their predators, who are thus more identifiable (by tracks or by sightings.) Though most of the adult crayfish are dullish brown, individuals seen in October 2004 were brightly colored and have not been identified at this time (pictures on file.) "Plain" crayfish have also been photographed (2005 and 2006.) We do not know if we have one or more than one species of crayfish.

Another important group of invertebrates are the spiders. Spiders prey on smaller insects (primarily) and also serve as a prey species for other invertebrates and vertebrates. Spider webs are an important nest material for some bird species, such as hummingbirds. In time, we hope to identify and characterize the many spider species already noted, and find others. Examples of other invertebrates worth considering: gastropods (snails) and worms. Snails are an important food source for other species of wildlife, especially birds, and the number of earthworms per cubic foot of soil is an index of soil fertility and permeability even though earthworms are primarily non-native. These relatively inconspicuous creatures can be used to assess the "foundation" aspects of habitat management.

Since one of our listed management goals is wildlife diversity, it is important to be aware of the requirements of these less conspicuous and attractive forms of native wildlife.

Butterflies & moths

According to Kutac and Caran, 182 species of butterflies have been observed in south Central Texas. Their appearance in any one location is sporadic and varies with weather. Not all butterflies which have been seen on this property have been identified (they flew away before they could be identified or photographed for later identification); many are here in only one season. Those butterflies which have been certainly identified (36 species as of June 21, 2005; 52 species as of November 25, 2006)) are listed below. Many more have been seen, and efforts continue to identify these insects and the plants they use on this property.

Management for butterflies includes providing and preserving larval food plants, nectar sources for adult butterflies, preferred rest sites in bad weather, and water. Larval food plants identified include Ashe juniper (juniper hairstreak), mistletoe (great purple hairstreak), milkweed family (monarchs and other milkweed butterflies), hackberry and ash (the Asterocampus complex of butterflies), prickly ash and wafer ash (giant swallowtails), wild parsley and other Umbelliferae (anise swallowtail, eastern black swallowtail), grasses and sedges (satyrs, wood nymphs, grass skippers, skipperlings), legumes (sulfurs.) Important nectar sources for spring butterflies include the early verbenas, wild plums, early flowering legumes such as bur clover, white limestone honeysuckle (spring migrant monarchs), wild onion (esp. Drummond wild onion) and mustard-family forbs (bladderpod, peppergrass, etc.) Mid-late spring butterflies (esp. hairstreaks) nector on prairie bluets, basketflower, lemon horsemint, and other flowering plants. Fall migrating monarch butterflies nectar on green milkweed, Maximilian sunflower, ironweed, and frostweed. Migrating monarchs rest in Ashe juniper in the spring (to a lesser extent also in fall) and in live oak edges during bad weather in the fall. They also rest in the creek woods. Increasing and maintaining native plant diversity will serve butterflies best. Adding known larval and nectaring plants which are not now on the property (such as Missouri violets for the fritillaries) is an important step. &denotes species accepted by state coordinator for county checklist at Butterflies and Moths of North America checklist.


  1. Monarch, Danaus plexippus (photographed, adults and larvae)
  2. Queen, Danaus gilippus (photographed)
  3. Viceroy, Basilarchia archippus (photographed)
  4. Red Admiral, Vanessa atalanta (photographed)
  5. Giant swallowtail Papilio cresphontes (photographed)
  6. Tiger swallowtail Pterourus glaucus
  7. Two-tailed Tiger Swallowtail Pterourus multicaudatus
  8. Black Swallowtail Papilio polyxenes (adults and larvae) (photographed)
  9. Orange Sulfur Colias eurytheme (photographed 2006)
  10. Common Sulfur Colias philodice
  11. Little Yellow Eurema lisa (photographed)
  12. Sleepy Orange Eurema nicippe
  13. Large Orange Sulfur Phoebis agarithe (white-form female photographed 6/24/06)
  14. Gulf fritillary, Agraulis vanillae (photographed 2003 and 6/28/05)
  15. Question Mark, Polygonia interrogationis (photographed)
  16. Painted Lady, Vanessa cardui (photographed)
  17. American Lady, Vanessa virginiensis (photographed 4/4/06 nectaring on thicketing plum)
  18. Hackberry Emperor, Asterocampa celtis (photographed 2005)
  19. Tawny Emperor, Asterocampa clyton (photographed 10/05)
  20. Empress Leilia, Asterocampa leilia (photographed)
  21. Olive Juniper Hairstreak, Mitoura siva gryneus or Mitoura gryneus gryneus (photographed)
  22. Common Buckeye, Junonia coenia (photographed 2005, 2006)
  23. Common Wood-Nymph, Cercyonis pegala (photographed)
  24. Texan Crescent, Phyciodes texana (in Glassberg), Texan Crescentspot, Anthanassa texana, in Audubon field guide (photographed--poor quality 2003, good 6/16/07)
  25. Great Purple Hairstreak, Atlides halesus (photographed)
  26. Pearl Crescent Phyciodes tharos (photo 5/26/06, creek woods)
  27. Phaon Crescent, Phyciodes phaon (4/8/05) (photo 5/17/07)
  28. Funereal Duskywing, Erynnis funeralis (added 4/8/06, seen earlier in week)
  29. Cabbage White Pieris rapae
  30. Julia Longwing Dryas iulia (shape similar to Gulf Fritillary, brilliant solid orange above, no silvery spots below. April 2005, summer 2007)
  31. American Snout Libytheana carinenta (Cramer) or L. bachmanii bachmanii (Kirtland) # Libytheana bachmanii larvata (Strecker) ? photo 11/28/05
  32. Little Wood-Satyr Megisto cymela (April 19, 2005) (photographed April 2006)
  33. California Sister Adelpha bredowii (May 2, 2005)
  34. Gray Hairstreak Strymon melinus (May 2005) (photograph 4/26/2006)
  35. Soapberry Hairstreak Phaeostrymon alcestis (May 27, 2005) (photographed nectaring on prairie bluets)
  36. Dusky-blue Hairstreak (June 17, 2005) on pickerelweed leaf in deep shade
  37. Variegated Fritillary Euptoieta claudia (abundant in May, early June 2005, over fields and in dry woods, mating in fencerows, photographed clearly June 2005.)
  38. Southern Dogface Colias cesonia (larvae photographed May 27, 2005)
  39. Lyside Sulfur Kricogonia lyside (photographed March, 2006 nectaring on Mexican plum)
  40. Common Checkered-Skipper Pyrgus communis (photographed 4/4/06)
  41. Dainty Sulfur Nathalis iole (photographed 4/9/2006)
  42. Pipevine Swallowtail Battus philenor (photographed 4/29/06)
  43. Dun Skipper Euphyes vestris metacomet (photographed 4/29/06)
  44. Eufala Skipper Lerodea eufala (photographed 4/8/06)
  45. Red-spotted Admiral Limenitis arthemis (photograph 2005)
  46. Black/brown and dull orange skipper (photograph 5/3/06)
  47. Horace's Duskywing Erinnes horatius (photograph 5/11/06, SW meadow)
  48. Silvery Checkerspot Chlosyne nycteis (photograph 5/25/06,creek woods)
  49. Orange Skipperling Copaeodes aurantiaca (photograph 5/30/06, dry woods; 8/19/06, NW meadow)
  50. Common Streaky-Skipper Celotes nessus (photograph 9/19/06, dry woods; 3/10/06 SW meadow)
  51. Fiery Skipper Hylephila phyleus (photograph 10/12/06, grass garden)
  52. Vesta Crescent Phyciodes vesta (photograph m/f 11/6/06, switchgrass near creek)
  53. Henry's Elfin Callophrys henrici (photograph 3/12/07, egglaying on redbud)
  54. Bordered Patch Chlosyne lacinia (pers. Comm. K. Jones, 3/16/07) dry woods
  55. Falcate Orangetip Anthocharis midea (photograph m, 3/19/07, dry woods, on crucifer)
  56. Unk. Crescent (photograph 3/19/07)
  57. Checkered White Pontia protodice (photograph f, 4/15/07, dry woods, on Drummond onion)
  58. Mourning Cloak Nymphalis antiopa (seen 5/3/07, SW meadow, no photo)
  59. Oak Hairstreak Satyrium favonius (photo 5/10/07, in prickly pear flower)
  60. Reakirt's Blue, Hemiargus isola (photo 7/11/07)
  61. Goatweed Leafwing, Anaea andria (photo 9/1/07, near creek; 6/9/08, yard)
  62. Southern Skipperling, Copaeodes minima (photo 9/20/07, near meadow)
  63. Cloudless Sulphur, Phoebis sennae (seen 9/22/07, west grass, at partridge pea)
  64. Common Mestra, Mestra amymone (seen, 10/23/07, poor photo, woods)

(64 species, 53 photographed)


  1. Polyphemous moth, 2001 Antheraea polyphemus, yard, no photo
  2. Snowy Urola Moth Urola nivalis (photograph 4/10/06; ID via
  3. Snowberry Clearwing Moth, Hemaris diffinis (photo 5/3/06, 3/24/07)
  4. Grapevine Epimenis, Psychomorpha epimenis (photo 3/7/07, on wild plum)
  5. Dull gray-brown moth, in dead grass, unk, prob geometrid (photo 3/18/07)
  6. Forage Looper Caenergina erechtea (photo 3/22/07)
  7. Small gray-brown moth with distinct light and dark stripes (photo 3/27/07) possibly Digrammia sp. (BugGuide ID by B. Patterson, tentative)
  8. Eight-spotted Forester Alypia octomaculata 4/19/07, no photo but seen clearly
  9. Lychnosea intermicata Hodges #6858 (photo 5/10/07)
  10. Ilia Underwing Catocala ilia (photo 5/14/07)?waiting confirmation of ID
  11. White-lined Sphinx Hyles lineata (photo caterpillar on Oenothera 5/17/07, adult nectaring on Oenothera 4/11/08)
  12. Common Gray Geometer Anavitrinella pampinaria (photo 9/14/07, ID via
  13. Ailanthus Webworm Moth Atteva punctella (photo 10/23/07)
  14. Crambid Snout Moth (species UID) (photo 10/23/07)
  15. Mournful Thyris Pseudothyris sepulchralis (photo 4/6/08)
  16. Bagworm Moth (probably common bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis) from bag found on cedar elm.)
  17. Luna Moth Actias luna (photo 3/7/09, on rusty blackhaw viburnum)

(17 species, 14 photographed, 1 bagworm bag photographed)

Odonata (Dragonflies and Damselflies)

Dragonflies and damselflies are important components of the local ecosystem, both in the larval and adult forms. Dragonfly larvae predate on other small aquatic animals, including mosquito larvae (and damselfly larvae) and are preyed on by a variety of predators. Adult dragonflies feed on smaller flying insects (such as mosquitoes, gnats, etc.) and are themselves an important food source for birds, including kites, purple martins, and others. Though dragonflies require a source of water for their eggs and larvae, some species are far-ranging. We have observed dragonflies not only near the pools and water garden, but flying far out over the grassland, clearly hunting aerial prey. Only some of these have been identified; many dragonfly species are sexually dimorphic and in addition they are rapid and erratic flyers, quickly evading binoculars.

Management for dragonflies consists of providing fish-free unpolluted water in which dragonfly nymphs can survive to maturity, in as many habitat types as possible. Our rain-water supplied water garden, designed with deep, shallow, shaded, and sunny portions, has enabled some species to reproduce even when the creek is dry. The smaller water feature in the SW meadow, completed in 2006, attracted dragonflies (at least four species laid eggs there) but we have no data yet on the success of reproduction.

At the pond, we see mostly the Desert Firetail damselflies, but other varieties also show up, including in the creek woods and near Fox Pavilion and Owl Pavilion. The dragonflies at the pond are far more various. At least eight types are found on most days near the lily pond; some are seen only out on the land. Some clearly prefer woods edges; others like the open grassland. We have confirmed successful reproduction (including observing mating and egg-laying) for several species, including Neon Skimmer, Widow Skimmer, Desert Firetail, and Roseate Skimmer.) As the only permanent body of water on our land large enough for survival of those odonate larvae which require months to mature, the lily pond is a valuable resource for these as well as amphibians. When there is water elsewhere (as during 2004) these animals reproduce in all areas where water remains long enough. This list is arranged alphabetically by scientific name. I thank Dr. John Abbott, of the University of Texas, for help in identifying some of these from photographs.

Broad-winged Damselflies
Hetaerina americana (Fabricius) American Rubyspot (photo 6/21/07)
Spreadwing Damselflies
Archilestes grandis (Great Spreadwing/damselfly) photo 6/8/05 (and annually since)
Lestes disjuncta (Lestes australis) (Common Spreadwing) photo 11/05
Lestes alacer (Plateau Spreadwing) photos 5/07, 3/09, prairie swales
Argia apicaulis (Say)? (Blue-fronted Dancer)
Argia immunda (Kiowa Dancer) (photos 6/05, m & f, Fox Pavilion)
Argia moesta (Hagen) (Powdered Dancer) (photo f, 2007, Owl)
Argia sedula (Blue-ringed Dancer) (photo 6/24/06)
Argia translata (Dusky Dancer) (photo 5/2/06)
Enallagma basidens Calvert (Double-striped Bluet) (photo 6/06)
Enallagma civile (Familiar Bluet) (photo 6/27/05, The Bowl, 9/05 west)
Enallagma exsulans (Hagen)? (Stream Bluet)
Ischnura hastata (Citrine Forktail) (photo m 3/24/06, 5/2007)
Telebasis salva (Desert Firetail) # (photos inc. reproduction, 6/05, 4/06)
Ischnura ramburii (Rambur's Forktail (photo f 5/2007)
Ischnura posita (Fragile Forktail) (photo m 8/20/2007)
Anax junius (Drury) (Common Green Darner) (photo 4/9/06)
Brechmorhoga mendax (Pale-faced Clubskimmer), creek woods, photo 9/20/07
Celithemis eponina (Halloween Pennant) 6/27/05, (photo 7/5/05 near m.)
Celithemis fasciata (Banded Pennant)(4/15/06, photo male) (? Comparison to photos on 9/11 and Abbot's book suggest this is not a Banded Pennant but Libellula pulchella instead. Will ask for confirmation one way or the other. Note 9/12/06)
Dythemis velox (Swift Setwing) (photo 6/10/05, Deer Ford)
Dythemis fugax (Checkered Setwing) (photo 6/4/06, Fox Pavilion)
Epiaeschna heros (Swamp Darner) (photo 10/12/07, westbrook crossing)
Epitheca cynosura (prob, Abbott, Common Baskettail) (photo m 3/30/06)
Epitheca petechialis (Dot-winged Baskettail) (photo m 4/5/06, 3/27/07)
Epitheca princeps (Prince Baskettail) (photo 4/22/06)
Erythemis simplicicollis (Eastern Pondhawk) (photo m 6/7/05, f 6/18)
Erythemis vesiculosa (Great Pondhawk) (photo 5/6/06)
Erythrodiplax umbrata (Band-winged Dragonlet) (photo 5/12/06; 5/30/06)
Gomphus militaris (Sulphur-tipped Clubtail) west grass, photo 6/23/07
Libellula comanche Calvert (Comanche Skimmer)
Libellula croceipennis Sélys (Neon Skimmer) (photo m/f 6/6-7/05)
Libellula luctuosa Burmeister (Widow Skimmer) (photo m/f 4/24/05)
Libellula lydia (Common Whitetail) 4/24/2006 (photo f/4/29/06, m5/06)
Libellula pulchella (Twelve-spotted Skimmer) (photo f/9/11/06)
Libellula saturata (Flame Skimmer)
Micrathyria hagenii (Thornbush Dasher) (photo 6/17-18/05, pond)
Orthemis ferruginea (Roseate Skimmer) (photo 12/04)
Pachydiplax longipennis (Burmeister) (Blue Dasher) (photo m 6/7/05, f 8/05)
Paltothemis lineatipes (Red Rock Skimmer) (?11/04)
Pantala flavescens (Wandering Glider) (photo 6/18/05, NW meadow)
Pantala hymenaea (Spot-winged Glider) (photo 7/16/05, NW meadow)
Perithemis tenera (Eastern Amberwing) (photo-m 8/27/08, lilypond)
Rhionaeschna psilus (Turquoise-tipped Darner) (photo 10/28/07, creek)
Sympetrum vicinum (Yellow-legged Meadowhawk) (photo 6/10/05)
Sympetrum corruptum (Variegated Meadowhawk) (photo m/f 10/1/05)
Tramea carolina (Carolina Saddlebags) close observation, no photo 5/3/06
Tramea lacerata (Black Saddlebags) (feeding swarms, 7/05, photo 10/05)
Tramea onusta (Red Saddlebags) (main grass, 8/05, photo 8/06)

(48 species, 43 confirmed with photographs [Banded Pennant ?])

Other Insects

While butterflies, moths, and dragonflies are conspicuous, other insects are also important to the maintenance of habitats and the overall ecological balance of the property. These include many species both identified and as yet unidentified, which have a variety of functions: pollinating plants, serving as food for wildlife, predating on other insects, breaking up detritus in soil and in the woods, etc. A large, diverse insect population is crucial to the health of the ecosystem. Incidental observation and identification of insects will be a continuing activity; in time it should be possible to have a checklist for insects as well as other animals. Both printed field guides and insect-specific sites online are used to identify insects at least to the genus level.

Management for native insect populations requires maintaining suitable habitat (including food plants for all stages of life) and avoiding, as much as possible, the use of pesticides. Control of invasive non-native insects (such as the imported red fire ant) may require the use of pesticides, but this will be done in such a way as to avoid damage to native insects as much as possible.

So far, only the more obvious insect groups have been noted: bees, ants, wasps, dragonflies, the larger beetles, praying mantis and walking sticks, etc. As time permits, more extensive observation and identification will be worked into the plan.

Blattodea (roaches)

  1. Wood roach, Parcoblattus sp. (photo 8/20/2008, ID from book)


  1. Scudder's Mantis Oligonicella scudderi (photograph 10/05?)
  2. Praying Mantis Stagmomantis limbata (photo female 8/18/08; Eric Eaton confirms genus, isn't sure of species, but says not S. carolina)
  3. Minor Ground Mantis Litaneutria minor (photo male 9/30/08)

(3 species, 3 photographed)


  1. Walkingstick

(1 species, 0 photographed)

Hemiptera (bugs)

  1. Large milkweed bug Onchopeltus fasciatus (photograph, 7/05)
  2. Water strider Corixa sp. (photographs 2005, 2006)
  3. Tarnished plant bug Lygus lineolaris (or similar species) (photograph 2005)
  4. Harlequin bug Murgantia histrionica (photograph 7/05)
  5. Leaf-footed bugs Acanthocephala terminalis (photograph 2005, 2006)
  6. Giant water bug Belostoma (photograph 10/4/2005)
  7. Stink bug Acrosternum hilare (photograph 6/4/2006)
  8. Cone-nosed bug Triatoma sp (prob. sanguisuda) (photo 7/2/06)
  9. Backswimmer Notonecta sp. (photos 5/29 and 5/30/08)
  10. Annual Cicada Tibicen superba (photograph 2006)
  11. Two-lined Spittlebug Prosapia bicincta (photo 5/12/07)
  12. Broad-headed Bug Hyalymenus tarsatus (photo 10/18/07)
  13. Candy-striped Leafhopper Graphocephala coccinea (photo 4/28/08)
  14. Leaf-footed bug Leptoglossus phyllopus (photo 5/3/08, on yucca)
  15. Leaf-footed bug Narnia sp. (photo 3/11/06, on prickly pear)
  16. Stink bug Chlorochroa ligata (Say) (photo 6/20/08) ID via Dr. Mark Muege of TAMU, Fort Stockton
  17. Tiny aquatic bug Microvelia sp. (photo 7/18/08) ID via, but M. Muegge of TAMU thinks they're Gerris instead.
  18. Planthopper Oliarus sp. (photo 8/20/08) ID via BugGuide
  19. Small milkweed bug Lygaeus kalmii (photo 10/18/08 on goldenrod)

(19 species, 19 photographed)


  1. Antlion Myrmelion sp. (pits, and photo adult 2006, dry woods)
  2. Antlion Euptilon ornatum (photo adult 5/31/2008, ID by John D. Oswald, TAMU)
  3. Dobsonfly Corydalis cornutus
  4. Green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (?)
  5. Green lacewing Chrysoperla plorabunda (photo 11/26/07, ID by Dr. Vogtsberger, Midwestern State University
  6. Owlfly Ululodes sp. (photograph 5/30/06, dry woods)
  7. Mantidfly, Dicromantispa interrupta (ID as Mantispa interrupta by Dr. Vogtsberger; corrected to above by Dr. Oswald) (photo 7/1/08)

(7 (?) species, 5 photographed)

Coleoptera (beetles)

  1. Striped blister beetle Epicauta spp. (photo 2005)
  2. Gray blister beetle Epicauta fabricii (?) (photo 2005)
  3. Eyed click beetle Alaus oculatus (photo 4/22/2006)
  4. Flower-feeding scarab Euphoria kerni (photo May 2005)
  5. Texas flower scarab Trichiotinus texanus (photo on cactus, lost?)
  6. Convergent lady beetle Hippodamia convergens
  7. Seven-spotted lady beetle Coccinella septempunctata
  8. Caterpillar hunter Calosoma scrutator (photograph 2002)
  9. Ground beetle Scarites subterraneus (photo 2005)
  10. June beetle Phyllophaga sp. (photo 2006)
  11. Dogbane Leaf beetle Chrysochus auratus (photo 2005)
  12. Longhorn beetle, Sphaenothecus bivittata. (photo 10/2005, 9/15/08)
  13. 4-spotted Checkered Beetle Pelonides quadripunctatus (photo 4/16/2007)
  14. Ironclad Beetle Zopherus nodulosum haldemani (photo 4/18/07)
  15. Small black beetle on cow parsley ?Euphoria devulsa? (photo 5/10/2007) (ID by Phillip Harpootlian at, tentative)
  16. Red-headed Ash Borer Neoclytus acuminatus (photo 6/17/07) (ID via
  17. Beetles on Soapberry flowers (photo 6/07) unknown
  18. Spotted Cucumber Beetle Diabrotica undecimpunctata (photo 2/25/08)
  19. Ground Beetle Pasimachus sp. (photo 5/8/08)
  20. Grapevine Beetle, Pelidnota punctata (photo 5/10/08)
  21. Long-horned Cactus Beetle Moneilema sp. (photo 5/17/08)
  22. Leaf beetle, Cryptocephalinae, possibly Diachos sp. (photo6/20/08) ID by
  23. Small (3/4-1 in.) black click beetle, UID, (photo 8/19/08)
  24. Black beetle, Triorophus sp. (prob.) (photo 8/24/08)
  25. Tiger beetle, Cicendela politula politula. (photo 9/25/08) ID via
  26. Black beetle (Darkling?) (photo 9/26/08)

(26 species, 24 photographed)


  1. Crane Fly Tipula sp.
  2. Bee fly Bombylius sp.
  3. Syrphid Fly Copystylum sp. (photo 10/29/05) (possibly Metasyrphus sp.?)
  4. Syrphid Fly Helophilus sp. (photo 10/30/05)
  5. Buffalo gnat Simulium sp.
  6. Robber Fly (gray/black, photograph 2005)
  7. Robber Fly Laphria macquarti (photograph 4/30/06, eating small beetle)
  8. Robber Fly Promachus hinei (photograph 5/29/06, mating)
  9. Striped fly (Owl Pavilion, unidentified) (photo 4/06)
  10. Mydas fly Mydas clavatus (photo 6/24/06)
  11. Iridescent long-legged fly, family Dolichopodidae, Condylostylus sp. (photo 7/28/06)
  12. Robber Fly Mallophora sp. (?, black, photo Owl Pav 9/5/06)
  13. Dark brown fly with marked wings (unidentified) Owl water, (photo 9/11/06)
  14. Bluebottle fly (family Calliphoridae, Eric R. Eaton, pers. Comm.) Green/blue fly on elbowbush flowers (photo 2/13/07
  15. Blowfly (family Calliphoridae, Eric R.Eaton, pers. Comm.) Bronze/copper/gold fly on elbowbush flowers (photo 2/13/07)
  16. Syrphid Fly on elbowbush, small, B&W striped abdomen, gold metallic thorax, white frons (photo 2/13/07)
  17. Syrphid Fly on elbowbush, tiny, flat abdomen patterned in orange and black, dark eyes (photo 2/13/07)
  18. Black Soldier Fly, Hermetia sp. (probably H. illucens) (photo 7/18/08)
  19. Flesh-fly, Sarcophaga sp. (photo 7/19/08)
  20. Tiny fly, gold-metallic body, magenta eyes, UID (photo 7/21/08)
  21. Longhorn Cactus Fly, Odontoloxozus longicornis (photo 7/22/08), ID via (Gerard Pennards)

(21 species, 18 photographed)


  1. Velvet Ant Dasymutilla occidentalis (photograph 2005)
  2. Bumblebee Bombus sp. (photograph 2005)
  3. Carpenter bee Xylocopa sp.
  4. Honeybee Apis mellifera (photo 2005)
  5. Paper wasp (yellow & brown) Polistes exclamans (?sp.) (photo 2007)
  6. Paper wasp (red) Polistes carolina (photo 2005)
  7. Blue mud dauber Chalybion californicum (photograph 2005)
  8. Black and yellow mud dauber Sceliphron caementarium
  9. Red imported fire ant Solanopsis invicta
  10. Tarantula hawk Hemipepsis sp
  11. Great golden digger wasp Sphex ichneumoneus (photograph 10/05)
  12. Black wasp w/red rings on abdomen Scolia sp. (photograph 10/14/05)
  13. Small ichneumon wasp, west woods, (photograph 11/1/05)
  14. Black wasp with one yellow ring (photograph 4/06)
  15. Black wasp with white markings. Mason wasp Monobia quadridens (photo 4/30/06, 5/3/07)
  16. Green bee. Halictid bee, prob Agapostemon sp. (photo 2006)
  17. Thread-waisted wasp, Ammophila sp. (bad photo 6/25/2006, 6/22/08)
  18. Leaf-cutter/mason bee, Megachilid bee (IDed from discovered nests)
  19. Cuckoo Leafcutter Bee Coelioxys sp., maybe octodentata (green eyes) (cleptoparasite on megachilid bees above) (photo 7/6/08)
  20. Oak Apple Gall Wasp Amphibolips confluenta (photo galls)
  21. "Clothesline ant" (small orange ants, non-stinging/biting, maybe 2-3mm, found on many trees, but most easily on the clothesline, which they use from tree to tree.)

(21 species, 15 photographed)


  1. Differential grasshopper Melanoplus differentialis (photograph 2005)
  2. Banded-winged grasshopper Arphia pseudonietana (?sp) (photograph 2005)
  3. "Mosaic" grasshopper Hippiscus ocelote (or possibly Xanthippus corallipes if another specimen shows orange/red on inner thigh) (photograph 10/2005)
  4. Bird-winged grasshopper Schistocerca sp.(?alatucea) (photographs 10/2005)
  5. Green yellow-striped grasshopper (species not known) (photograph 11/2005)
  6. Brown grasshopper (species not known) (photograph 10/2005)
  7. Field cricket Gryllus sp.
  8. Katydid Scuddaria sp. (photograph of female 10/2005)
  9. Pink-winged grasshopper (species not known) (photograph 8/2006)

(9 species, 8 photographed)

(66 species of insects other than butterflies/moths or Odonates, 51 photographed)

Arachnids (Spiders and Others)

Spiders and Harvestmen:

  1. Tarantula Aphonopelma sp.
  2. Crab spiders Misumenoides spp. (on pink evening primrose, photo 2007)
  3. Wolf spiders Rabidosa or Hogna sp. (striped "rabid wolf spider" 10/08/05)
  4. Yellow garden orb-weaver Argiope aurantia (photograph, 6/2005, others)
  5. Crab-like Spiny Orb-weaver Gasteracantha cancriformis (check species ? cancriformis?) (11/05, photos also in 2007, multiple colors)
  6. (unidentified orb-weaver--probably another Araneus sp. with fuzzy gray abdomen and pinkish cephalothorax, photographed 6/2005)
  7. Long-jawed orbweaver Tetragnatha laboriosa (?sp) bad photo in pond, 6/2005
  8. Funnel web spider Agelenopsis sp.
  9. Six-spotted Fishing Spider Dolomedes triton (photograph, 6/2005)
  10. Orb-weaver Neoscona oaxacensis (identified via BugGuideNet, photo 6/05)
  11. Jumping Spider on pipe fence Maevia sp.(photograph 9/05) ID via BugG.
  12. (unidentified black & white jumping spider on switchgrass tips, 10/2005)
  13. Green Lynx Spider. Peucetia viridans (female w/egg case, in Lindheimer muhly, photo 10/10/05; another with with egg case in kidneywood, photo 10/11/05; another with egg case in evergreen sumac, photo 10/11/05; another with egg case in goldenrod, photo 10/26/05. All marked slightly differently.)
  14. Orb-weaver. Araneus sp. (orange spider, pear tree, photo 10/10/05)
  15. Jumping spider. Phidippus audax (male on Mexican buckeye, photo, 4/06)
  16. Jumping spider Marpissa formosa (male on waterlily pad, 5/06, female on waterlily pad, 8/08)
  17. Orb-weaver (tan, black "smile" dots, dry woods, photo 5/30/06)
  18. Spined Microthena. Microthena gracilis (photo, with prey 7/11/2007)
  19. Orchard Spider Leucauge venusta (photo, 11/28/07)
  20. Jumping Spider Phidippus apacheanus (photo 9/25/08)

Harvestman/Daddy Longlegs (Order Opiliones)

  1. Leiobunum townsendi(photo 11/26/07 of aged individual) ID by James C. Cokendolpher, Texas Tech University
  2. Leiobunum vittatum (photo 11/29/07) prelim ID by J.C. Cokendolpher (may be new species, will try to capture some for DNA analysis)

(21 spiders and harvestmen (very incomplete), 19 photographed)


  1. Striped bark scorpion Centruroides vittatus (should be only scorpion species)

Ticks and mites:

  1. Lone Star Tick Amblyomma americanum
  2. Chiggers Trombicula alfreddugesei
  3. Dog Tick (Wood Tick) Dermacentor variabilis (photo 2006)

(25 species arachnids, 20 photographed)

Order Isopoda

Pillbugs and sowbugs (photo one species 2/2/07)

Myriapoda (millipedes and centipedes)

  1. Small millipede in Owl Water vegetation. Oxidus gracilis (Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae) (Roland Shelley, (photo9/11/2007)
  2. Small centipede found dead in water in Owl Water (photo 3/24/07)

(2 species, 2 photographed)


  1. Green-red crayfish (? Procambarus sp?) (photo 2004)
  2. Brown/gray crayfish (?) (photo 2005, 2006, 2007)

Gastropods (Snails)

  1. Straight-spiral-shelled, ~ 2-2.5 cm long, terrestrial (photo 3/23/07)
  2. "Whelk-shaped", pale, terrestrial (photo 3/22/07 and 3/24/07)
  3. Coiled shell, flattish, <1cm in diameter, white or pale tan, aquatic. (photo 2006)
  4. Coiled shell, rounded, brown and white striped, terrestrial (photo, 3/24/07)
  5. Coiled shell, rounded, cream/tan, terrestrial (photo 3/24/07)
  6. Coiled shell, flattish, white, terrestrial (?) (photo 3/23/07)

(6 apparent species, 6 photographed)